Barley acreage seeded up 15% from 2021, stocks down

The USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) released their acreage and grain stocks reports today, which revealed a 15% increase in planted acreage (3.05 million acres) over 2021. Acreage increases were realized in each of the top three growing states; Idaho, Montana, and North Dakota. 

Despite a late start to planting due to a wet and cool spring throughout some of the barley growing region, crop development has made substantial progress, only slightly behind the 5-year average. Approximately 56% of barley production is within an area experiencing drought, a substantial improvement through the spring that brought precipitation to both Idaho and North Dakota. 

Barley stocks continue to decline, totaling 42.2 million bushels in all positions, down 41% from June 2021. 

You can access the June 30, 2022 USDA NASS barley acreage and stock reports; along with other historical acreage, production, and stock reports, from the AMBA website

You can find additional barley data at the NASS website

Biotech & Barley: webinar recording now available

The recording for the webinar recently hosted by the American Malting Barley Association (AMBA), Biotech & Barley, is now available for viewing. This webinar covered an overview of the history of plant breeding through today, including the latest advancements in gene editing. Dr. Jason Walling, research geneticist at the USDA-ARS Cereal Crops Research Unit and director of the Barley Malt Quality Lab, provided specific case studies on how these technologies are being applied in barley and other cereal crops. Dr. Fan-Li Chou, vice president for scientific affairs and policy at the American Seed Trade Association, dove a bit deeper into the regulatory frameworks that overlay these technologies, both domestically and internationally. The webinar concluded with a live Q&A session, which is included in the recording. 

View the recording here

Access Dr. Fan-Li Chou’s slides

Access Dr. Jason Walling’s slides

Helpful links from the webinar:

Potential for improved infrastructure at the Cereal Disease Lab gets support from U.S. Representative McCollum

The National Barley Improvement Committee (NBIC), which represents the U.S. barley community of growers, researchers, processors, users, and allied industries, would like to thank Representative McCollum for her acknowledgement of the important role the cereal grain industry plays in Minnesota and throughout the region through her Community Project Funding request for the planning and design of a new Cereal Disease Laboratory (CDL). The CDL is based in St. Paul Minnesota, which is within McCollum’s home 4th district. The USDA Agricultural Research Service CDL has long been a hub of barley related research. Most recently, work there on various rust diseases and fusarium head blight have been supported through the Barley Pest Initiative and the U.S. Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative, respectively. Unfortunately, despite the increase in federal investment in research, the infrastructure housing the cooperating scientists has run out of room and is limiting expansion of additional work. 

Rep. McCollum submitted a Community Project Funding request for FY23 through the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies appropriations process on behalf of the University of Minnesota, the home of the CDL and potential partner for a new facility. The request of $8 million is to support the planning and design phase of a new facility. 

Full request found here:

The funding would be used for the planning and design phase of a new next generation Cereal Disease Laboratory facility in St. Paul, MN. As the premier cereal disease research laboratory, these investments are critical if we are to continue making gains in addressing new and emerging highly pathogenic strains in wheat, or mycotoxins in corn, that not only destroy crops but cause illness and death in livestock and humans consuming the infected grain. With the complexities of our changing environment coupled with increased vulnerability to the global food supply, access to new cutting-edge technical capabilities is needed to take on growing challenges in cereal disease.

The NBIC greatly appreciates Representative McCollum’s commitment to the CDL and will continue to advocate for additional federal funding to ensure barley remains a robust and competitive crop. A portion of the funding that has already been secured through NBIC efforts has been allocated to the Cereal Disease Lab and the NBIC enthusiastically supports this project to ensure a modern and well-equipped facility to attract high-caliber scientists and researchers.

Cool conditions persist across much of the barley growing region

Considerable planting progress has been made over the past few weeks, despite battling persistent cool and wet conditions throughout the northwest and upper Midwest. Typically, barley is planted by June, but notably in North Dakota and Minnesota, this is not the case. A more accurate accounting of acreage planted will be released in the June 30th Acreage Report to see if the 11% increase in barley acreage is realized in 2022. 

Cool weather, in general, is slowing crop development, but barley is proving to be a resilient crop in many areas despite ongoing severe drought conditions. The U.S. Drought Monitor is now showing 66% of the barley region in drought, which shows improvement from the past month. 

Access individual state crop progress and condition reports here: https://www.nass.usda.gov/Publications/State_Crop_Progress_and_Condition/index.php

Crop progress summaries:

Northwest Region (Idaho-Washington-Oregon): Cool and wet conditions persist. Barley emergence on par with average year, although across all crops, an up to three week delay in crop development has been reported in some areas. Although conditions have slowed crops, top and subsoil moisture levels are being replenished. 

Montana: Dry and windy conditions persist, exasperating the ongoing drought across nearly 95% of the state. 90% of barley is emerged with 10% booted, slightly ahead of average, although only 18% of the barley is rated in good condition. Only 35% of topsoil and 24% of subsoil moisture is rated adequate . 

Colorado: Drought conditions persist in 88% of the state, although some areas received much needed moisture last week. Nearly all the barley is emerged with 91% in fair or better condition, despite topsoil moisture at only 43% adequate and subsoil at 21% adequate. 

Wyoming: Cool weather was experienced throughout much of the state, but moisture was also received last week, slightly easing drought in some regions. About half of top and subsoil moisture levels are still short to very short. 92% of barley is emerged with 28% jointed. 91% of the barley is rated in good condition with 9% rated fair. 

North Dakota: Only 75% of barley has been planted at a time when on average, all barley would typically be in the ground. Furthermore, only 29% is reported as emerged, well behind the average of 85% for this time of year. Top and subsoil moisture is at 95% and 92% adequate or surplus, respectively. 

Minnesota: Top and subsoil moistures are now only rated 2 or 3% short, respectively. However, only 60% of barley has been planted, well behind the 98% average. Emergence is also delayed at only 35% (5-year average 90%). Delays are reported in most other crops as well. 

Crop progress reports are conducted weekly through the planting and growing season in each respective state. You can access these full reports and subscribe to report delivery here: https://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/index.php

Biotech & Barley: a webinar hosted by the American Malting Barley Association exploring innovation in the industry

Advancements in a wide range of biotechnologies are having a significant impact in the way improvements are being made to crops; whether to increase yields or to make them more resilient to stressors, barley is no different. Given the shifting landscape of the biotechnology industry, the American Malting Barley Association (AMBA) is hosting a webinar to develop a shared understanding of what technologies exist, how they are being applied, and the implications for their use. Registration is now open for this live webinar to be held on June 15th at noon CT. 

Dr. Jason Walling, research geneticist at the USDA-ARS Cereal Crops Research Unit and director of the Barley Malt Quality Lab, will provide an overview of the history of plant breeding through today, including the latest advancements in gene editing. This will establish a shared lexicon of terms and approaches. He will illustrate how these technologies are being applied by showcasing some case studies on barley and other cereal crops. Dr. Fan-Li Chou, vice president for scientific affairs and policy at the American Seed Trade Association, will dive a bit deeper and share what regulatory frameworks overlay these technologies, and will specifically walk through the regulations that impact the shared case studies. Domestic and international implications will be explored that lean on the markets most relevant to the barley industry. The webinar will conclude with a live Q&A session with our presenters. 

Click HERE for registration, which is limited to the first 100 attendees. A recording of the webinar will be made available a week after the event. If you are unable to attend the live session, but are interested in being notified when the recording is available, skip registration and send an email to Ashley directly to get added to the mailing list. 

Speakers:

Fan-Li Chou is the Vice President for Scientific Affairs and Policy at the American Seed Trade Association, where she leads ASTA initiatives on plant breeding innovation, intellectual property rights, domestic and international regulatory policies. Prior to ASTA, Fan-Li served at USDA for over 10 years, including as the Agricultural Biotechnology Advisor to the Office of the Secretary and in positions with the Foreign Agricultural Service and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.  She is an accomplished policy and program leader, with expertise in agricultural biotechnology regulatory, trade issues, and multilateral negotiations. 

Jason Walling is a research geneticist and director of the USDA-ARS Barley Malt Lab located at the Cereal Crops Research Unit (CCRU) in Madison, WI.  Jason completed his undergraduate at the University of Minnesota and spent some of that time working in the barley research plots of Dr. Donald Rasmussen.  He completed his Master’s degree in Plant Genetics at Montana State University and his PhD from UW Madison in Plant Breeding/Plant Genetics.  His research at CCRU focuses on the genetic mechanisms controlling seed dormancy and germination (preharvest sprouting) and their effects on malt quality.  Jason has been a member of AMBA’s technical committee since 2019.

National Barley Improvement Committee elects new members

The National Barley Improvement Committee (NBIC) has wrapped up its annual election to fill vacancies within their regional categories. Five new barley professionals will be joining the committee, and two representatives have been re-elected. The NBIC represents the U.S. barley community of growers, researchers, processors, users, and allied industries. The work of the NBIC seeks to secure both funding and favorable agricultural policies at the federal level. Visit their website to learn more about the regional categories and how to become involved: https://ambainc.org/nbic/.  

  • Northwest: Dr. Brigid Meints, assistant professor in the barley breeding program at Oregon State University
  • Southwest: Judy Jolly, agronomist for the Molson Coors Beverage Company
  • Northcentral: Dr. Thomas Baldwin, assistant professor in the Department of Plant Pathology at North Dakota State University; Dr. Eric Stockinger (re-elected), barley associate professor at Ohio State University; and Dr. Brook Wilke, associate director of the Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Agroecosystem Research Program at Michigan State University
  • Southcentral-Southeast: Dr. Katherine Frels, assistant professor at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln 
  • East: Dr. Heather Darby (re-elected), professor of agronomy at the University of Vermont

The barley community would like to thank the many years of service contributed by the outgoing members of the NBIC:

  • Dr. Andrew Friskop
  • Dr. Patrick Hayes
  • Wade Malchow
  • Mary-Jane Maurice

Crop progress mixed across barley growing regions

Depending on your location, spring weather is throwing some significant extremes, either providing ample opportunities to get seed into the ground, or as is the case across much of the Midwest, continuing to keep that door shut with wet and cool soil conditions. 

According to the USDA-NASS Crop Progress and Condition report for the week of May 9th, Montana is the only state showing ahead of average progress on barley planted acres. This, across much of the state, is due to the continuing dry conditions along with recent above average temperatures. Despite seed in the ground, without much needed rain, the crop will likely struggle to get out of the gate. At the other extreme, much of the drought-stricken areas in North Dakota have been replenished with 80% of the top soil moisture at adequate or surplus levels leading to only 6% of the barley crop planted opposed to 55% on average typically in the ground this time of year. 

Crop progress summaries:

Idaho: 72% of barley is planted with 42% emerged, both down slightly from last year and the 5-year average. Other field crops are experiencing similar progress. A cool and wet spring persists and has slowed planting, but has brought much needed precipitation to the state that is now reporting topsoil moisture as 90% adequate or surplus with just 29% of the subsoil as short or very short. 

Montana: Planted acres of barley are slightly ahead the previous year (55%) and 5-year average (51%) at 66%, up 16% from last week that generally brought minimal precipitation and above average temperatures. 25% percent of the crop has now emerged. Most other field crops are reporting progress close to average for this time of year. Some emerged spring crops are reporting stress. Only 23% of topsoil and 14% of subsoil moisture is reported as adequate.

North Dakota: Only 6% of barley has been planted, well behind 60% last year and the average of 33% for this time of year. All field crops are reporting similar lagging progress after a week logging just 2.3 days suitable for field work. Topsoil is now 80% adequate or at surplus moisture levels with subsoil still measuring 29% short or very short on moisture. 

Washington: 75% of the barley crop is in the ground (close to average) with 30% emerged (slightly below average). Other field crops are generally running at or slightly below average as cool and wet conditions persist through the state. Topsoil moisture is running at 82% adequate or surplus with only 33% of subsoil at short or very short. 

Oregon: 89% of the barley crop is planted with 57% emerged; slight increases on both accounts from last week but cool and wet conditions are slowing crop development. 69% of winter barley is showing to be in good or excellent condition this spring. Topsoil moisture is running at 75% adequate or surplus with 39% of subsoil at short or very short. 

Minnesota: Only 5% of barley has been planted, an increase from 1% last week, but down from 85% at this time last year, and lower than the 5-year average of 43% for the first week of May. All field crops in the state are recording similar levels, indicating consistent planting conditions throughout the state. Recent rain has replenished topsoil moisture that is faring much better than last year and is now reporting 95% at adequate or surplus levels. Furthermore, only 15% of subsoil moisture is now being recorded at very short or short. 

Crop progress reports are conducted weekly through the planting and growing season in each respective state. You can access these full reports and subscribe to report delivery here: https://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/index.php

Congratulations to AMBA members taking home medals from the 2022 World Beer Cup

Known as the ‘Olympics of beer’ the World Beer Cup showcases the top three entered beers in the world across more than 100 style categories. The Gold, Silver, and Bronze medals are awarded every two years and the competition is held in conjunction with the Brewers Association’s Craft Brewers Conference which just wrapped up this week in Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

AMBA is proud of our member breweries that took home hardware from this year’s event:

  • Allagash Brewing Co.; Tripel (gold, ‘Belgian-Style Tripel’) and White (bronze, ‘Belgian-Style Witbier’)
  • Ballast Point Brewing Co.; Schlenkerlish (gold, ‘Smoke Beer’)
  • Deschutes Brewery; Dee Wright (gold, ‘Other Strong Beer’) and NA Black Butte (silver, ‘Non-Alcoholic beer’)
  • Georgetown Brewing Co.; Gusto Crema Coffee Ale (gold, ‘Coffee Beer’)
  • Lakefront Brewery; La Gosa Rita (gold, ‘Gluten-Free Beer’)
  • MadTree Brewing Co.; Ziegler (gold, ‘American-Style Amber Lager’) and Legendary Lager (silver, ‘Contemporary American-Style Lager’)
  • Russian River Brewing Co.; Jannemi (silver, ‘Classic Saison’)
  • Sierra Nevada Brewing Co.; Sunny Little Thing (bronze, ‘Fruit Wheat Beer’)
  • Sun King Brewery; Barrel Aged Churrolicious (gold, ‘Wood- and Barrel-Aged Beer’), Soul Shakedown Party (silver, ‘Experimental Wood-Aged Beer’), and Sunlight Cream Ale (silver, ‘Golden or Blonde Ale’)
  • Widmer Brothers Brewing; Hefe (silver, ‘American Wheat Beer’)

You can find the full list of winners at the World Beer Cup website

AMBA leads panel at Craft Brewers Conference addressing barley supply in a changing climate

The 39th Craft Brewers Conference & BrewExpo America, presented by the Brewers Association, will be held Monday, May 2 – Thursday, May 5, 2022 at the Minneapolis Convention Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The event, which is America’s largest craft brewing industry gathering, draws thousands of attendees each year. 

Featured in the Quality & Ingredients track is a panel addressing “Malting Barley Supply in a Changing Climate.” Moderated by Ashley McFarland, vice president and technical director of AMBA, this roundtable will explore our changing climate and the impacts it will have on the growing conditions and resulting quality of the U.S. malting barley crop. Joined by a climate scientist and barley breeder, McFarland will guide the discussion on how the climate is changing and what our research community is doing to bring forward more resilient barley varieties to combat increasing abiotic stressors. You will also hear from a barley grower that has first hand experience with getting a malting barley crop off the field despite the drought, warmer evenings, and untimely rains. The roundtable will wrap up with a discussion on how to pivot from this certain fate and how to support the domestic malting barley industry despite evolving quality challenges from the perspective of a craft brewing icon. 

Panelists joining McFarland include:

  • Dr. Kenny Blumenfeld – Senior Climatologist, Minnesota Climatology Office, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
  • Buzz Mattelin – farmer and past president of the National Barley Growers Association
  • Dr. Patrick Hayes – professor and barley breeder at Oregon State University
  • John Mallett – vice president of operations, Bell’s Brewery

AMBA hopes you will join the session and looks forward to seeing you at the conference! Follow Ashley at CBC on Twitter @AMBA_Barley. To learn more about the Craft Brewers Conference, visit the event site: http://brewers.informz.net/z/cjUucD9taT04NjcyMTIyJnA9MSZ1PTk1MTkxODY5MiZsaT03NTU1MjE0OQ/index.html

Using timing of risks and benefits to breed barley for future climates

Printed with permission from Sonia A. Hall, Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources, Washington State University. Originally published on AgClimate.net.

This article is part of a series where Hall shares insights from conversations they had with public plant breeders across the Pacific Northwest about their breeding programs and how climate change considerations intersect with their work. Through these conversations, Hall wanted to better understand the complexities of the plant breeders’ world, where there are elements that already provide useful information about adapting to future climates, and where there are questions—about the climate in the future, or the plants’ responses, or production, market, or other factors affecting a particular crops’ future—that intersect or even overshadow questions about how to prepare for future climates.

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Barley, like wheat, can be sown in the fall, overwinter, and grow and mature the next season, or can be planted in the early spring, and have a shorter, quicker growing season. For a variety of reasons, however, spring barley is considered “the good one” for malting and producing beer. Yet as Dr. Patrick Hayes, Oregon State University’s malting barley breeder, works to develop barley varieties that will be grown under future climates, fall barley is key. The timing of growth and the resources it taps can help avoid a variety of issues that will otherwise impact barley yields and quality (whose main indicator is the percent protein in the grain). Read on for Dr. Hayes’s explanation of why fall barley is becoming increasingly attractive.

SAH: Please describe the focus of your breeding program.

PH: Our breeding program is focused on barley varieties for malting, food, and animal feed. We primarily target growers in the Pacific Northwest, though varieties released here are also adapted to, and used across, a broader geography. The malting and beer brewing industry is why barley exists. Its use for food is a niche market at this time. And animal feed is a default (alas, usually a money-loser) for barley that does not make malt grade.

SAH: Do you currently integrate climate change considerations into your breeding program? How? Are there conditions that make it hard, or unnecessary, to integrate climate change considerations into breeding?

PH: Yes. High temperatures and limited moisture can lead to high protein content in barley, impacting its quality for brewing. The genetics of drought tolerance are super complex, so breeding drought tolerant varieties, particularly with malting quality, is a challenge. We therefore breed for fall-planted barley that can make best use of the available winter moisture and, in irrigated fields, reduce the need for irrigation. This will be beneficial under future conditions with more frequent, and less late-season irrigation water available as snowpacks get smaller and melt earlier. The added advantage of fall barley is that it matures a little earlier, so has a better chance of avoiding heat extremes in the summer. One of our local brewers described the impact of the 2021 heat wave in optimum dryland barley growing areas as a “bloodbath.”

SAH: What traits or characteristics do you focus on in your current breeding program? Do those traits or characteristics confer the ability to adapt to future climates, that could be warmer in all seasons, with increasing variability and extremes? Or could they be affected by changing climates?

PH: Even though the net trajectory as the climate changes is for warming, extremes, including late frosts, are becoming more volatile. Dealing with volatility is a challenge. This explains why, though it’s somewhat counterintuitive, we breed for low temperature tolerance even as the net trajectory is warming. Fall-planted barley requires a tolerance to low temperatures. This a complex trait that we are slowly unraveling. Low temperature tolerance is coupled with flowering time. Some varieties need certain cold periods before they are able to grow and become reproductive. Others simply respond to the length of the day, which becomes their cue for switching to reproductive growth. This is what we are unraveling, but we see options that we can use in breeding. And of course you need all the other positive traits required of a barley variety in terms of resistances, quality, etc.

SAH: What trade-offs do you consider, or would you need to consider, in breeding for warmer conditions, longer frost-free periods, and likely wetter springs and winters, drier summers, and a shift in the availability of irrigation water to earlier in the year (as expected in much of the Pacific Northwest?

PH: Breeding for drought tolerance per se is a huge challenge. We are leaving that to others. Our strategy is avoidance via fall planting. Fall planted crops also mature earlier than spring planted crops, allowing them to escape the hottest days of summer.

SAH: Are there resources – online tools, Extension or other publications, events, etc. – that you know of that can help agricultural professionals integrate climate change into their work assisting producers with variety choice? Or any resources you wish existed?

PH: Certainly necessary and something I intend to get involved with once the decks clear a bit.

This conversation glosses over a whole range of factors that barley growers need to consider, including how barley fits into their rotation, and whether they have the storage capacity and infrastructure to handle malting barley, if they have access to contracts for malting barley to even plant it in the first place, to say nothing of all the management practices that can affect yields and grain quality. Yet breeding for cold tolerance to have productive fall barley varieties that can avoid the worst of what climate change might have in store for our region is an interesting twist on other approaches we are hearing from plant breeders. This twist may also be of interest to other crops that could be planted in the fall. And I can’t help but be personally intrigued by the irony of breeding for cold tolerance in a warming world.